Once we described computers as mechanical minds, increasingly we describe computer networks with more biological terms – bugs, viruses, attacks, communities, social capital, trust, identity… and…as design moves into the age of biology and shifts from a mechanical object ethos to an organic systems ethos, we should reflect on how best to prepare for coming changes in (design) practice.
Design In The Age of Biology, Hugh Dubberly, 2008.
Design In The Age of Biology was published in print as part of a curated set of articles in ‘Digital Design Theory, Readings From The Field’ by Helen Armstrong, 2016. 
The text links our increased understanding of biology to new technological developments and describes our shift from the age of physics and the industrial revolution to the age of biology and organic systems thinking.
Hugh Dubberley worked for Apple in the 1980s and was co-author of the iconic 1987 Apple video ‘Knowledge Navigator‘.
Featured Image (top): http://ageofbiology.com/2018/01/25/art-and-the-rush-of-life/ (accessed 27/08/2018)
 http://www.dubberly.com/articles/design-in-the-age-of-biology.html (accessed 09/08/2018)
 Armstrong, H. Digital Design Theory, Readings From The Field. Princeton Architectural Press (2016). ps 111-125.
http://www.dubberly.com/about (accessed 09/08/2018)